After Makhno, Hidden Histories of Anarchism in the Ukraine (including 'The Anarchist underground in the Ukraine in the 1920's amd 1930's, and The Story of a leaflet and the fate of the anarchist Varshavskiy')
Published by the Kate Sharpley Library in 2009, 22 pages. A5 size pamphlet (N3650)
Nestor Makhno, the great Ukranian anarchist peasant rebel escaped over the border to Romania in August 1921. He would never return, but the struggle between Makhnovists and Bolsheviks carried on until the mid-1920s. In the cities, too, underground anarchist networks kept alive the idea of stateless socialism and opposition to the party state. This pamphlet examines the extent of anarchist opposition to Bolshevik rule in the Ukraine in the 1920s and 1930s.....
In early 1918, the new Bolshevik government in Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, making peace with Germany and ending their involvement in the First World War. But according to the treaty Russia ceeded large amounts of territory to the central powers, including Ukraine, and the people living in Ukraine did not want to be ruled by Germany and the Central Powers, and so rebelled.
Partisan units were formed that waged guerilla war against the Germans and Austrians. This rebellion turned into an anarchist revolution, and Nestor Makhno was one of the main organizers of these partisan groups, who united into the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (RIAU), also called the Black Army (because they fought under the anarchist black flag). The RIAU also battled against the Tsarist Whites and anti-semitic pogromists, and in areas where the RIAU drove out opposing armies, villagers sought to abolish capitalism and the state through organizing themselves into village assemblies, communes and councils.
Throughout all this drama the Bolsheviks persecuted Makhnovists, and as soon as Ukraine had been liberated from the Whites (by the Makhnovist armies), the Bolsheviks set about destroying their rivals. Their attacks against the Makhnovists were accompanied by reprisals against the civilian population of Ukraine, and all Makhnovist Communes were destroyed. The actions resulted in a period of guerrilla warfare against the Red troops, but evetually Makhno was forced to leave the Ukraine and seek refuge in Romania, and he lived the rest of his life in exile.
Condition of the pamphlet is generally very good. The cover is clean and tidy, the spine is intact and all pages are clean, intact, unblemished and tightly bound. Their is a tiny amount of creasing to the extreme top right hand corner.